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Surveying has to do with the determination of the relative spatial location of points on or near the surface of the earth.

• Also, It is the art of measuring horizontal and vertical distances between objects, of measuring angles between lines.

Determining the direction of lines, and of establishing points by predetermined angular and linear measurements.

• Distances, angles, directions, locations, elevations, areas, and volumes are thus determined from the data of the survey.

The Importance of Surveying

Land surveying is basically an art and science of mapping and measuring land.

The entire scope of profession is wide; it actually boils down to calculate where the land boundaries are situated.

This is very important as without this service, there would not have been railroads, skyscrapers could not have been erected and neither any individual could have put fence around their yards for not intruding others land.

Different methods of Surveying

• Control Survey: to establish the horizontal and vertical positions of arbitrary points.

• Boundary: determine the length and direction of land lines and to establish the position of these lines on the ground.

• Topographic: it gather data to produce a topographic map showing the configuration of the terrain and the location of natural and man-made objects.

• Hydrographic : The survey of bodies of water made for the purpose of navigation, water supply, or sub-aqueous construction.

• Construction : it lay out, locate and monitor public and private engineering works.

• Route: Refers to those control, topographic, and construction surveys necessary for the location and construction of highways, railroads, canals, transmission lines, and pipelines.

which measurements made on photographs are used to determine the positions of photographed objects.
• Astronomical survey: generally involve imaging or “mapping” of regions of the sky using

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